Clear cell carcinoma is a type of endometrial cancer. It starts from the glands normally found in the tissue that covers the inside of the uterus. The name comes from the fact that many of the cells look clear when examined under the microscope.
The uterus is a pear-shaped hollow organ found in the female pelvis between the rectum (the end of the large bowel) and the urinary bladder. The upper part of the uterus (fundus) is attached to the fallopian tubes while the lower part is connected to the vagina through the uterine cervix.
The walls of the uterus are made up of three layers:
Clear cell carcinoma is usually diagnosed after a small sample of tissue is taken from the endometrium in a procedure called a biopsy or curettage. After the diagnosis, the tumour is removed in a surgical procedure called a hysterectomy.
The myometrium is a thick band of muscle just below the endometrium. The movement of cancer cells from the endometrium into the myometrium is called myometrial invasion. The amount of myometrial invasion will be described in millimetres and as a percentage of the total myometrial thickness. Myometrial invasion is used to determine the tumour stage (see Pathological stage below). Tumours with greater myometrial invasion are more likely to spread to other parts of the body.
The cervix is a structure at the very bottom of the uterus. The cervix connects directly with the endometrium. The wall of the cervix is made up of a type of tissue called the stroma.
Clear cell carcinoma may grow from the endometrium into the cervix. After the tumour is removed completely, your pathologist will carefully examine the tissue from the cervix to see if there are any cancer cells in the cervical stroma. Finding cancer cells in the cervical stroma increases the tumour stage (see Pathologic stage below).
Several other organs and tissues are directly attached or very close to the uterus including the ovaries, fallopian tubes, vagina, bladder, and rectum. Cancer cells directly growing into any of these structures by clear cell carcinoma is associated with poor prognosis and will be described in your report.
Blood moves around the body through long thin tubes called blood vessels. Another type of fluid called lymph which contains waste and immune cells moves around the body through lymphatic channels.
Cancer cells can use blood vessels and lymphatics to travel away from the tumour to other parts of the body. The movement of cancer cells from the tumour to another part of the body is called metastasis.
Before cancer cells can metastasize, they need to enter a blood vessel or lymphatic. This is called lymphovascular invasion. Lymphovascular invasion increases the risk that cancer cells will be found in a lymph node or a distant part of the body such as the lungs.
A margin is the normal tissue that surrounds a tumour and is removed with the tumour at the time of surgery. The margins will only be described in cases where the tumour extends into the cervical stroma or other tissues surrounding the uterus and after the entire tumour has been removed.
A margin is called positive when there are tumour cells at the very edge of the cut tissue. A positive margin is associated with a higher risk that the tumour will recur in the same site after treatment. A negative margin means that no tumour cells were seen at any of the cut edges of tissue.
Lymph nodes are small immune organs located throughout the body. Cancer cells can travel from the tumour to a lymph node through lymphatic channels located in and around the tumour (see Lymphovascular invasion above). The movement of cancer cells from the tumour to a lymph node is called metastasis.
Your pathologist will carefully examine all lymph nodes for cancer cells. Lymph nodes that contain cancer cells are often called positive while those that do not contain any cancer cells are called negative. Most reports include the total number of lymph nodes examined and the number, if any, that contain cancer cells.
Lymph nodes on the same side as the tumour are called ipsilateral while those on the opposite side of the tumour are called contralateral.
Lymph nodes examined are usually divided into those found in the pelvis and those found around a large blood vessel in the abdomen called the aorta. The lymph nodes found around the aorta are called para-aortic.
If cancer cells are found in a lymph node, the size of the area involved by cancer will be measured and described in your report.
Cancer cells found in a lymph node is associated with a higher risk that the cancer cells will be found in other lymph nodes or in a distant organ such as the lungs. The number of lymph nodes with cancer cells is also used to determine the nodal stage (see Pathologic stage below).
The pathologic stage for clear cell carcinoma is based on the TNM staging system, an internationally recognized system originally created by the American Joint Committee on Cancer.
This system uses information about the primary tumour (T), lymph nodes (N), and distant metastatic disease (M) to determine the complete pathologic stage (pTNM). Your pathologist will examine the tissue submitted and give each part a number. In general, a higher number means more advanced disease and a worse prognosis.
Clear cell carcinoma is given a tumour stage between 1 and 4 based on the depth of myometrial invasion and growth of the tumour outside of the uterus.
Clear cell carcinoma is given a nodal stage from 0 to 2 based on the examination of lymph nodes from the pelvis and abdomen.
Clear cell carcinoma is given a metastatic stage of 0 or 1 based on the presence of cancer cells at a distant site in the body (for example the lungs). The metastatic stage can only be determined if tissue from a distant site is submitted for pathological examination. Because this tissue is rarely present, the metastatic stage cannot be determined and is listed as MX.