Diagnosis library


February 1, 2023


Find your diagnosis

The diagnosis library is a collection of articles written by pathologists to help you understand your diagnosis and pathology report. The articles in the library are organized by area of the body. Need help finding an article? Contact us.

To start, please select an area of the body from the list below.

Adrenal gland

Appendix

Anal canal and anus

Bladder, ureters, and urethra

Breast

Bone

Brain and nervous system

Cervix

Colon and rectum

Esophagus

Gallbladder

Kidneys

Larynx (vocal cords, vallecula, and commissure)

Liver and bile ducts

Lungs and pleura

Lymph nodes, bone marrow, and blood

Oral cavity (tongue, lips, floor of mouth, hard palate, gingiva, buccal mucosa, mandible, and maxilla)

Oropharynx (tonsils, soft palate, and base of tongue)

Ovaries and fallopian tubes

Nasal cavity and sinuses (maxillary, ethmoid, frontal, and sphenoid sinuses)

Nasopharynx

Pancreas

Parathyroid gland

Penis and scrotum

Prostate gland

Salivary glands (parotid, submandibular glands, and minor salivary glands)

Skin

Stomach

Small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum)

Soft tissues (muscle, fat, connective tissue)

Thyroid gland

Testis (male gonads)

Uterus and endometrium

Vagina

Vulva

 

*

Adrenal gland

Adrenocortical adenoma

Adrenocortical carcinoma

Myelolipoma

Pheochromocytoma

 

*

Appendix

Acute appendicitis

Low grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm (LAMN)

Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumour (NET)

 

*

Anal canal and anus

Condyloma acuminatum

High grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL)

Squamous cell carcinoma

 

*

Bladder, ureters, and urethra

High grade papillary urothelial carcinoma

Low grade papillary urothelial carcinoma

Polypoid cystitis

Urothelial carcinoma

Urothelial carcinoma in situ (CIS)

*

Brain and nervous system

Astrocytoma, IDH-mutant, CNS WHO grade 2

Astrocytoma, IDH-mutant, CNS WHO grade 3

Astrocytoma, IDH-mutant, CNS WHO grade 4

Glioblastoma, IDH-wildtype

Meningioma

Oligodendroglioma

 

*

Breast

Atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH)

Benign phyllodes tumour

Columnar cell change (CCC)

Columnar cell hyperplasia (CCH)

Complex sclerosing lesion

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)

Fibroadenoma

Fibrocystic change

Flat epithelial atypia (FEA)

Granular cell tumour

Invasive ductal carcinoma

Invasive ductal carcinoma with apocrine features

Invasive lobular carcinoma

Invasive mucinous carcinoma

Intraductal papilloma

Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS)

Papillary lesion

Phyllodes tumour

Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH)

Radial scar

Sclerosing adenosis

Secretory carcinoma of the breast

Usual ductal hyperplasia (UDH)

 

*

Bone

Ameloblastoma

Central atypical cartilaginous tumour

Chondroblastic osteosarcoma

Chordoma

Chondrosarcoma

Conventional chondrosarcoma

Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma

Enchondroma

Ewing sarcoma

Fracture

Giant cell tumour of bone

Osteoblastoma

Osteochondroma

Osteoid osteoma

Osteosarcoma

Plasma cell neoplasm

Plasmacytoma

Thrombotic microangiopathy

 

*

Cervix

Adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) of the cervix

ASC-H (atypical squamous cells, cannot rule out HSIL)

ASC-US (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance)

Atypical glandular cells, not otherwise specified

Atypical glandular cells, favour neoplastic

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)

Condyloma acuminatum

Endocervical polyp

Endocervical adenocarcinoma

HSIL (high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion)

LSIL (low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion)

NILM (negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy)

Squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix

 

*

Colon and rectum

Adenocarcinoma of the colon and rectum

Chronic colitis

Chronic active colitis

Collagenous colitis

Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST)

Hyperplastic polyp of the colon and rectum

Inflammatory polyp of the colon and rectum

Invasive adenocarcinoma of the colon and rectum

Lymphocytic colitis

Microscopic colitis

Mucinous adenocarcinoma of the colon and rectum

Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the colon and rectum

Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of the colon and rectum

Sessile serrated adenoma (SSA)

Sessile serrated lesion (SSL)

Sessile serrated polyp (SSP)

Traditional serrated adenoma (TSA)

Tubular adenoma (TA) of the colon and rectum

Tubulovillous adenoma (TVA) of the colon and rectum

Villous adenoma (VA) of the colon and rectum

Well differentiated neuroendocrine tumour of the colon and rectum

 

*

Esophagus

Adenocarcinoma of the esophagus

Barrett’s esophagus

Eosinophilic esophagitis

Intramucosal adenocarcinoma of the esophagus

Reflux esophagitis

Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus

Squamous papilloma

 

*

Gallbladder

Chronic cholecystitis

Intracholecystic papillary neoplasm (ICPN) of the gallbladder

 

*

Kidneys

Angiomyolipoma (AML)

Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma

Diabetic nephropathy (diabetic glomerulosclerosis)

Oncocytoma of the kidney

Papillary renal cell carcinoma

TFE3-rearranged renal cell carcinoma

Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma

 

*

Larynx

Keratinizing squamous dysplasia of the larynx

Granular cell tumour

Squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx

Squamous carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the larynx

Squamous dysplasia of the larynx

Vocal cord nodule

Vocal cord polyp

 

*

Liver and bile ducts

Autoimmune hepatitis

Bile duct hamartoma

Cirrhosis

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)

Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC)

Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC)

Steatosis

Steatohepatitis

von Meyenburg complex

 

*

Lungs and pleura

Acute lung injury

Adenocarcinoma

Adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS)

Atypical carcinoid tumour

Carcinoid tumourlet

COVID-19

Diffuse alveolar damage (DAD)

Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma

NUT carcinoma

Mesothelioma

Minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA)

Organizing pneumonia

Pneumonia

Small cell carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinoma

Typical carcinoid tumour

Usual interstitial pneumonia

Mesothelioma

 

*

Lymph nodes, bone marrow, and blood

Burkitt lymphoma

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

Follicular lymphoma

Hodgkin lymphoma

Mantle cell lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Plasma cell neoplasm

Plasmacytoma

Small lymphocytic lymphoma

Anemia of chronic disease

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia

Hemolytic anemia

Iron-deficiency anemia

Megaloblastic anemia

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)

Thrombotic microangiopathy

 

*

Nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses

Chronic rhinosinusitis

Intestinal-type sinonasal adenocarcinoma

Mucosal melanoma

Sinonasal keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma (KSCC)

Sinonasal non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma (NKSCC)

Non-intestinal-type sinonasal adenocarcinoma

NUT carcinoma

Olfactory neuroblastoma

Schneidrian papilloma

Sinonasal inflammatory polyp

Sinonasal papilloma

Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC)

 

*

Nasopharynx

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma

 

*

Oral cavity

Keratinizing squamous dysplasia

Fibroma

Granular cell tumour

Lobular capillary hemangioma

Mucosal melanoma

Oral epithelial dysplasia

Pyogenic granuloma

Squamous cell carcinoma

Squamous carcinoma in situ (CIS)

Squamous dysplasia

Squamous papilloma

Verruca vulgaris

 

*

Oropharynx

HPV-associated squamous cell carcinoma

Non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinoma

Squamous papilloma

 

*

Ovaries and fallopian tubes

Atrophy

Benign Brenner tumour

Cellular fibroma

Clear cell carcinoma

Corpus luteum cyst

Cortical inclusion cyst

Cystic follicle

Endometrioid carcinoma

Endometrioid borderline tumour

Endometriosis

Follicle cyst

Granulosa cell tumour, adult type

Immature teratoma

Mature cystic teratoma

Mitotically active cellular fibroma

Mucinous borderline tumour

Mucinous carcinoma

Mucinous cystadenoma

Mucinous cystadenofibroma

Ovarian fibroma

Periovarian adhesions

Serous borderline tumour

Sex cord-stromal tumour

High grade serous carcinoma

Low grade serous carcinoma

Serous cystadenoma

Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC)​

 

*

Pancreas

Ductal adenocarcinoma

Mucinous cystic neoplasm

Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumour

 

*

Parathyroid gland

Enlarged and hypercellular parathyroid gland

Parathyroid adenoma

 

*

Penis and scrotum

Condyloma acuminatum

HPV-associated squamous cell carcinoma of the penis

Penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN)

Non-HPV squamous cell carcinoma of the penis

 

*

Prostate gland

Adenocarcinoma of the prostate​

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)

High grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN)

 

*

Salivary glands

Acinic cell carcinoma

Adenoid cystic carcinoma

Basal cell adenoma

Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma (HCCC)

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma

Oncocytoma

Pleomorphic adenoma

Salivary duct carcinoma

Warthin tumour

 

*

Skin

Actinic keratosis

Basal cell carcinoma

Basosquamous carcinoma

Bullous pemphigoid

Compound nevus

Congenital nevus

Cutaneous lupus erythematosus

Cylindroma

Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP)

Dermal nevus

Dermatofibroma

Dysplastic nevus

Epidermoid cyst

Fibrous histiocytoma

Granular cell tumour

Hemangioma

Hidradenoma

Junctional nevus

Keloid scar

Lentigo maligna

Infiltrating basal cell carcinoma

Invasive melanoma

Melanoma in situ

Merkel cell carcinoma

Micronodular basal cell carcinoma

Nodular basal cell carcinoma

Plasmacytoma

Pigmented basal cell carcinoma

Pilar cyst

Poroma

Sclerosing basal cell carcinoma

Seborrheic keratosis

Sebaceous carcinoma

Spiradenoma

Spongiotic dermatitis

Spitz nevus

Squamous cell carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinoma in situ

Superficial basal cell carcinoma

Syringoma

Trichilemmal cyst

Verruca vulgaris

Xanthelasma

 

*

Small intestine

Celiac disease

Duodenal adenoma

Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST)

Nonampullary duodenal adenoma​

Peptic duodenitis

 

*

Stomach

Adenocarcinoma of the stomach

Chemical gastropathy

Chronic gastritis

Chronic active gastritis

Chronic inactive gastritis

Erosive gastritis

Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST)

Helicobacter gastritis

Hyperplastic polyp

Inflammatory polyp

Reactive gastropathy

Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumour of the stomach

Xanthoma

 

*

Soft tissues

Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma

Angiolipoma

Angiosarcoma

Atypical lipomatous tumour

Deep fibromatosis

Dedifferentiated liposarcoma

Desmoid tumour

Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma

Ewing family of tumours

Fibromatosis

Ganglion cyst

Giant cell tumour of tendon sheath

Granular cell tumour

Intramuscular lipoma

Kaposi sarcoma

Leiomyosarcoma

Neurofibroma

Nodular fasciitis

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST)

Myxofibrosarcoma

Myxoid liposarcoma

Palmar fibromatosis

Plantar fibromatosis

Pleomorphic lipoma

Rhabdomyosarcoma

Schwannoma

Solitary fibrous tumour

Spindle cell lipoma

Superficial fibromatosis

Synovial sarcoma

Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma

Well-differentiated liposarcoma

 

*

Testis

Embryonal carcinoma

Mixed germ-cell tumour

Seminoma

Spermatocele

Yolk-sac tumour

 

*

Thyroid gland

Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma

Benign follicular nodule

Diffuse papillary hyperplasia

Encapsulated angioinvasive follicular thyroid carcinoma

Encapsulated angioinvasive Hurthle cell carcinoma

Encapsulated angioinvasive oncocytic carcinoma

Follicular adenoma

Follicular neoplasm

Hurthle cell adenoma

Hurthle cell carcinoma

Infiltrative follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma

Invasive encapsulated follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma

Medullary thyroid carcinoma

Minimally invasive encapsulated follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma

Minimally invasive follicular thyroid carcinoma

Minimally invasive Hurthle cell carcinoma

Minimally invasive oncocytic carcinoma

Nodular follicular disease

Nodular thyroid hyperplasia

Papillary thyroid carcinoma

Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma

Non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP)

Oncocytic adenoma

Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma

Suspicious for follicular neoplasm

Widely invasive follicular thyroid carcinoma

Widely invasive Hurthle cell carcinoma

Widely invasive oncocytic carcinoma

 

*

Uterus and endometrium

Atrophic endometrium

Atypical endometrial hyperplasia

Carcinosarcoma

Cellular leiomyoma

Disordered proliferative endometrium

Endometrial polyp

Endometrial clear cell carcinoma

Endometrial hyperplasia without atypia

Endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma

Endometrioid intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN)

Endometrial serous carcinoma

Fibroid

Leiomyoma

Leiomyosarcoma

Mitotically active leiomyoma

Proliferative endometrium

Secretory endometrium

Uterine serous carcinoma

 

*

Vagina

Condyloma acuminatum

High grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL)

Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL)

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)

 

*

Vulva

Condyloma acuminatum

Differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (dVIN)

High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL)

Extramammary Paget disease

Lichen sclerosus

Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL)

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)

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