cervix

Cervix

What is the cervix? The cervix is part of the female genital tract. It is found at the bottom of the uterus where it forms an opening and a canal into the endometrial cavity of the uterus. The outer surface of the cervix is lined by two types of cells that form a barrier called …
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Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)

What is cervical intraepithelial neoplasia? Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is a pre-cancerous, sexually transmitted disease caused by infection with a virus called human papillomavirus (HPV). It is called pre-cancerous because over time it can change into a type of cervical cancer called squamous cell carcinoma. CIN is divided into three levels – CIN1, CIN2, and …
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Transformation zone

What is the transformation zone? The transformation zone is a part of the cervix where the squamous cells that make up the ectocervix meet the glandular cells that make up the endocervix. Is the transformation zone normal? Yes. The transformation zone is a normal part of the cervix. Why is the transformation zone important? The …
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Negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM)

What does the term negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM) mean? Negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM) means that no pre-cancerous or cancerous cells were seen in your Pap smear. It is a normal result. How do pathologists make this diagnosis? The diagnosis of NILM is made after a Pap smear of the …
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ASC-US of the cervix

What does ASC-US mean? ASC-US stands for atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. ASC-US means that abnormal-looking cells were seen on your Pap test. ASC-US is a preliminary result and not a final diagnosis. Conditions associated with ASC-US include non-cancerous changes such as inflammation in the cervix and the pre-cancerous disease low grade squamous intraepithelial …
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ASC-H of the cervix

What does ASC-H mean? ASC-H stands for atypical squamous cells, cannot rule out high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). This result means that your pathologist saw abnormal-looking squamous cells in your Pap test.  These abnormal cells seen in ASC-H raise the possibility that a more serious pre-cancerous disease called high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) may be …
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Atypical squamous cells, cannot rule out HSIL (ASC-H) of the cervix

What does atypical squamous cells, cannot rule out HSIL (ASC-H) mean? The result atypical squamous cells, cannot rule out HSIL (ASC-H) means that your pathologist saw abnormal-looking squamous cells in your Pap test.  These abnormal cells seen in ASC-H raise the possibility that a more serious pre-cancerous disease called high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) may …
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Squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix

What is squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix? Squamous cell carcinoma is a type of cervical cancer. The tumour starts from specialized squamous cells normally found on the surface of the cervix. Most tumours start from a pre-cancerous disease called high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). What causes squamous cell carcinoma in the cervix? The …
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Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) of the cervix

What is low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion of the cervix? Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) is a non-cancerous, sexually transmitted disease caused by infection with a virus called the human papillomavirus (HPV). This condition may affect both women and men. In addition to the cervix, LSIL can also affect the vagina and vulva. In both women …
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High grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) of the cervix

What is high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion of the cervix? High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) is a pre-cancerous, sexually transmitted disease caused by infection with a virus called human papillomavirus (HPV). In addition to the cervix, HSIL commonly involves the vagina and vulva. In both women and men, HSIL may also involve the anal canal and peri-anal …
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