cervix

Chronic cervicitis

Chronic cervicitis means prolonged inflammation cervix, specifically in the transformation zone between the ectocervix and the endocervix. It is a very common condition that may affect up to half of all women at some time during their adult life. What are the symptoms of chronic cervicitis? Most women with chronic cervicitis do not experience any …
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Adenocarcinoma of the cervix

Adenocarcinoma is a type of cervical cancer. It develops from columnar cells normally found on the surface of the endocervix. Most tumours start from a non-invasive type of cancer called endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS). What are the symptoms of adenocarcinoma of the cervix? The most common symptom of adenocarcinoma of the cervix is abnormal …
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ASC-US on a Pap smear of the cervix

What does ASC-US mean on a Pap smear of the cervix? ASC-US stands for atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. It means that abnormal cells were found on the surface of your cervix when the Pap smear was performed. Does ASC-US on a Pap smear mean cancer? No. ASC-US does not mean cancer. However, it …
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Cervix

What is the cervix? The cervix is part of the female genital tract. It is found at the bottom of the uterus where it forms an opening into the endometrial cavity of the uterus. The cervix is commonly divided into two parts – the ectocervix and the endocervix which meet at an area called the …
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Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is a pre-cancerous disease caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). It is composed of abnormal squamous cells that have been infected and transformed by the virus. The squamous cells are found in a part of the cervix called the transformation zone. CIN is called a pre-cancerous disease because over time it can …
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Transformation zone

The transformation zone is a part of the cervix where the squamous cells that make up the ectocervix meet the glandular cells that make up the endocervix. In this area of the cervix, the glandular cells that make up the endocervix are slowly replaced by squamous cells. This process is called squamous metaplasia. As a …
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Negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM)

What does the term negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM) mean? Negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM) means that no pre-cancerous or cancerous cells were seen in your Pap smear. It is a normal result. How do pathologists make this diagnosis? The diagnosis of NILM is made after a Pap smear of the …
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ASC-H on a Pap smear of the cervix

What does ASC-H mean? ASC-H stands for atypical squamous cells, cannot rule out HSIL. It means that abnormal squamous cells were seen in your Pap smear.  These abnormal cells raise the possibility that a more serious pre-cancerous disease called high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) may be present in your cervix. What causes ASC-H? Causes of …
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Squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), also called invasive squamous cell carcinoma, is the most common type of cervical cancer. The tumour starts from squamous cells normally found in the epithelium on the outside surface of the cervix. SCC of the cervix can be keratinizing (KSCC), non-keratinizing (NKSCC), or basaloid. Keratinizing means that the tumour cells are …
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Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion of the cervix

Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) of the cervix is an abnormal growth caused by infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). The virus infects squamous cells found in a part of the cervix called the transformation zone. Over time the infected cells develop genetic changes that lead to LSIL. The abnormal growth seen in LSIL is …
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