IHC

Smooth muscle actin (SMA)

Smooth muscle actin (SMA) is a protein that plays an important role in the structure and function of smooth muscle cells. Smooth muscle is one of the three types of muscle tissue found in the human body, with the other two being skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle. SMA is a specialized protein that allows cells …
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PAX5

What is PAX5? PAX5 (Paired box protein 5) is a type of protein called a transcription factor that plays an important role in the development and function of B cells, a type of white blood cells (WBCs) that are part of the body’s immune system. It is also known as BSAP (B-cell-specific activator protein) due …
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AE1/AE3

AE1/AE3 are a pair of antibodies that recognize multiple cytokeratins, intermediate filament proteins found in epithelial cells. Cytokeratins are normally located in the cytoplasm (body) of the epithelial cell. Pathologists perform a test called immunohistochemistry to stain tissues for AE1/AE3 and the pattern and intensity of staining can help identify the presence of epithelial cells …
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CDX-2

CDX-2 is a gene that encodes for a protein known as Caudal Type Homeobox 2. It is a member of the caudal-related homeobox transcription factor gene family. This protein is crucial for embryonic development, particularly in forming the small and large intestines. It acts as a transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes involved …
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Synaptophysin

Synaptophysin is a protein made by neuroendocrine cells. These types of cells are found in the brain and in endocrine organs such as the thyroid gland, adrenal gland, and pancreas. Small groups of neuroendocrine cells can also be found in non-endocrine organs throughout the body such as the stomach, small bowel, colon, skin, bladder, and …
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PAX8

What is PAX8? PAX8  (Paired box gene 8) is a specialized protein called a transcription factor. It plays an important role in the formation of various organs including the thyroid gland, kidneys, ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, and vagina. What does PAX8 do? The PAX8 protein is required for the normal development and function of various …
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TTF-1

TTF-1 (stands for thyroid transcription factor -1) is a protein made by cells normally found in the thyroid gland, lungs, thymus, and brain. Most benign (noncancerous) and malignant (cancerous) tumours that start from cells in these organs also make this protein. Normal neuroendocrine cells and tumours made up of neuroendocrine cells can also make TTF-1. …
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GATA-3

GATA-3 (GATA binding protein 3) is a transcription factor that plays an important role in the development and differentiation of various cells within the body. It is part of the GATA family of transcription factors, which bind to specific DNA sequences in the promoter regions of target genes to regulate their expression. GATA-3 is particularly …
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S100

S100 is a protein that is made by many different types of normal, healthy cells including cells in the skin, salivary glands, fat, cartilage, and nerves. Tumours that start from these types of tissue may also make S100. Once the S100 protein is made, it is held in both the nucleus and cytoplasm of the …
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p40

p40 is a protein that is made by many different kinds of normal healthy cells including squamous cells, basal cells, and myoepithelial cells. Tumours that start from these types of specialized cells also make p40. Once the p40 protein is made it is held in a part of the cell called the nucleus. The nucleus …
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