IHC

CDX-2

What is CDX-2? CDX-2 is a specialized type of protein called a transcription factor. CDX-2 is called a transcription factor because it helps guide the transcription or expression of genes required for the normal development of a cell. What types of cells normally make CDX-2? CDX-2 is normally made by cells in the small intestine …
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Synaptophysin

What is synaptophysin? Synaptophysin is a protein made by specialized neuroendocrine cells. These types of cells are found in the brain and in endocrine organs such as the thyroid gland, adrenal gland, and pancreas. Small groups of neuroendocrine cells can also be found in non-endocrine organs throughout the body such as the stomach, small bowel, …
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TTF-1

What is TTF-1? TTF-1 (stands for thyroid transcription factor –1) is a specialized protein that is produced by normal cells in the lung, thyroid gland, thymus, and brain. Tumors that start from one of these organs may also produce TTF-1. This protein is normally found in a part of the cell called the nucleus. The …
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GATA-3

What is GATA-3? GATA-3 is a specialized protein that is made by many different types of normal, healthy cells including cells in the skin, breast, salivary glands, kidney, bladder, and immune system. Tumours that start from these types of tissue may also make GATA-3. This protein may also be found in tumours that start in …
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S100

What is S100? S100 is a specialized protein that is made by many different types of normal, healthy cells including cells in the skin, salivary glands, fat, cartilage, and nerves. Tumours that start from these types of tissue may also make S100. Once the S100 protein is made, it is held in both the nucleus …
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p40

What is p40? p40 is a protein that is made by many different kinds of normal healthy cells including squamous cells, basal cells, and myoepithelial cells. Tumours that start from these types of specialized cells also make p40. Once the p40 protein is made it is held in a part of the cell called the …
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Immunoreactivity

What does immunoreactivity mean? Immunoreactivity is a word pathologists use to describe the results of a test called immunohistochemistry. This test is performed to see if the cells in a tissue sample make a protein of interest. Cells that make the protein may be described as reactive or positive. Cells that do not produce the …
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Immunostain

What does immunostain mean? Immunostain is a word pathologists use to describe a test call immunohistochemistry. To learn more, read our article about immunohistochemistry.

Cytokeratin 20 (CK20)

What is cytokeratin 20? Cytokeratin-20 (CK20) is a protein that is made mostly by cells in the colon, rectum, bladder, ureters, and urethra. It is also made by a specialized type of cell found in the skin called a Merkle cell. CK20 belongs to a larger family of proteins called cytokeratins, which are responsible for …
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Cytokeratin 7 (CK7)

What is cytokeratin 7? Cytokeratin 7 (CK7) is a protein that is made by normal cells in the lung, breast, female reproductive organs (ovaries and endometrium), thyroid gland, and salivary glands (for example the parotid gland). It is also produced by some cells in the stomach and pancreas. Tumors that start from one of these …
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