immunohistochemistry

CDX-2

What is CDX-2? CDX-2 is a specialized type of protein called a transcription factor. CDX-2 is called a transcription factor because it helps guide the transcription or expression of genes required for the normal development of a cell. What types of cells normally make CDX-2? CDX-2 is normally made by cells in the small intestine …
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CD30

What is CD30? CD30 is a protein that is made by activated immune cells such as T cells and B cells. Greater than normal levels of CD30 is also made by some types of cancer that start from T or B cells, such as anaplastic large cell lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma. The tumour cells in …
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CD68

What is CD68? CD68 is a protein made by cells that contain specialized parts called lysosomes. Cells use lysosomes to grab and break down potentially harmful elements in their environment. For example, specialized immune cells called macrophages and histiocytes use lysosomes to kill bacteria. While CD68 is found mostly in immune cells, any type of …
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CD5

What is CD5? CD5 is a protein that is normally made by specialized immune cells called T cells. Most lymphomas that start from T cells, including peripheral T cell lymphoma, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, and extranodal T cell lymphoma, make CD5. Abnormal B cells can also make CD5, and some lymphomas that start from these …
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CD3

What is CD3? CD3 is a protein that is normally made by two types of specialized immune cells: T cells and NK cells. Most lymphomas that start from T and NK cells, including peripheral T cell lymphoma, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, and NK/T cell lymphoma, also make CD3. Why do pathologists test for CD3? The …
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Synaptophysin

What is synaptophysin? Synaptophysin is a protein made by specialized neuroendocrine cells. These types of cells are found in the brain and in endocrine organs such as the thyroid gland, adrenal gland, and pancreas. Small groups of neuroendocrine cells can also be found in non-endocrine organs throughout the body such as the stomach, small bowel, …
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PAX-8

What is PAX-8? PAX-8 (stands for ‘paired box gene 8’) is a specialized protein that is produced by normal cells in the thyroid gland, thymus, ovary, fallopian tube, uterus, bladder, and kidneys. The ovaries, fallopian tubes, and uterus are sometimes grouped together under the terms ‘female genital tract’ or ‘Müllerian tract’. Tumors that start from …
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TTF-1

What is TTF-1? TTF-1 (stands for thyroid transcription factor –1) is a specialized protein that is produced by normal cells in the lung, thyroid gland, thymus, and brain. Tumors that start from one of these organs may also produce TTF-1. This protein is normally found in a part of the cell called the nucleus. The …
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GATA-3

What is GATA-3? GATA-3 is a specialized protein that is made by many different types of normal, healthy cells including cells in the skin, breast, salivary glands, kidney, bladder, and immune system. Tumours that start from these types of tissue may also make GATA-3. This protein may also be found in tumours that start in …
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S100

What is S100? S100 is a specialized protein that is made by many different types of normal, healthy cells including cells in the skin, salivary glands, fat, cartilage, and nerves. Tumours that start from these types of tissue may also make S100. Once the S100 protein is made, it is held in both the nucleus …
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