melanoma

Clark’s level

Clark’s level is a system used in pathology reports to describe how far a skin cancer such as invasive squamous cell carcinoma or invasive melanoma has spread into the skin. It’s an important factor in determining the severity and potential behaviour of the tumour. The system consists of five levels, each indicating how deeply the …
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HMB-45

What is HMB-45? HMB-45 (Human Melanoma Black-45) is an antibody that binds to a protein called gp100. This protein is expressed in cells called melanocytes and tumours made up of melanocytes, including melanoma. How is HMB-45 used in pathology? HMB-45 staining is commonly used by pathologists to aid in the diagnosis and classification of tumors …
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Mucosal melanoma of the head and neck

What is mucosal melanoma? Mucosal melanoma is a type of cancer made up of abnormal melanocytes. In the head and neck, the tumour starts from a thin layer of tissue called mucosa which covers the inside the mouth (oral cavity), nose (nasal cavity), paranasal sinuses (maxillary sinus, ethmoid sinus, frontal sinus, and sphenoid sinus), and …
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Melanoma in situ of the skin

What is melanoma in situ? Melanoma in situ is a non-invasive type of skin cancer made up of specialized cells called melanocytes. If left untreated, melanoma in situ can turn into an invasive type of skin cancer called invasive melanoma. Where does melanoma in situ start? Melanoma in situ starts from specialized cells called melanocytes …
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Lentigo maligna

What is lentigo maligna? Lentigo maligna is a non-invasive type of skin cancer made up of specialized cells called melanocytes. Another name for lentigo maligna is melanoma in situ. If left untreated, lentigo maligna can turn into an invasive type of skin cancer called lentigo maligna melanoma. Where does lentigo maligna start? Lentigo maligna starts …
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Invasive melanoma of the skin

Invasive melanoma is a common type of skin cancer made up of cells called melanocytes that are normally found in a part of the skin called the epidermis.  As the tumour grows, the abnormal melanocytes spread into a layer of skin called the dermis. Large tumours can eventually spread into even deeper layers of tissue …
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