patient education

Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC)

An aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a benign (noncancerous) but locally aggressive bone lesion that typically affects children and young adults. Characterized by blood-filled spaces separated by connective tissue, aneurysmal bone cysts can cause significant bone expansion and weakening. They most commonly occur in the long bones of the legs, the vertebrae, and the flat …
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Chondrosarcoma grade 2

Grade 2 chondrosarcoma, also known as intermediate grade chondrosarcoma, is a type of cancer made up of cartilage that develops within the medulla (central space) of a bone. It is one of the most common types of primary bone cancer in adults. Why is the grade important? Chondrosarcomas are graded based on their appearance under …
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Chondrosarcoma grade 1

Grade 1 chondrosarcoma, also known as low-grade chondrosarcoma, is a type of cancer made up of cartilage that develops within the medulla (central space) of a bone. It is one of the most common types of primary bone cancer in adults. Why is the grade important? Chondrosarcomas are graded based on their appearance under the …
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Blastoid

In pathology, the term “blastoid” refers to cells that have features resembling immature precursor cells, known as blasts, which are typically found in the bone marrow. These cells are generally considered abnormal and can be indicative of aggressive and rapidly proliferating diseases, often seen in certain types of cancers. Microscopic features of blastoid cells Blastoid …
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Blasts

In pathology, the term “blasts” refers to immature cells that are in the early stages of development into mature cells. These cells are typically found in the bone marrow, where they are part of the normal process of blood cell formation, known as hematopoiesis. Blasts can develop into various types of blood cells, such as …
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High grade B cell lymphoma with MYC and BCL2 rearrangements

High grade B cell lymphoma with MYC and BCL2 rearrangements is a type of cancer that starts in white blood cells called B cells. These cells are part of the immune system and help protect your body from infections and diseases. “High grade” means that this type of cancer is likely to grow and spread …
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Cribriform morular thyroid carcinoma

Cribriform morular thyroid carcinoma (CMTC) is a rare type of thyroid gland cancer. The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland in the neck that produces hormones important for metabolism. Cribriform morular thyroid carcinoma is unique due to its specific appearance under the microscope and its association with certain genetic conditions. This article will help you understand …
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Keratosis without dysplasia

Keratosis without dysplasia in the larynx refers to a condition where the tissue that covers the inside surface of the larynx is abnormally thick without showing signs of dysplasia, which means there are no precancerous changes in the cells. This change is most commonly seen in the vocal cords although other parts of the larynx …
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Odontogenic cyst

An odontogenic cyst is a growth arising from tooth-forming tissues in the bones of the jaw (the mandible and maxilla). While most are benign (non-cancerous), some have the potential to become very large which can damage surrounding structures. What are the most common types of odontogenic cysts? Radicular cyst (periapical cyst): The most common type, …
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Radicular cyst of the jaw

A radicular cyst, also known as a periapical cyst, is the most common type of odontogenic cyst. It typically develops at the apex (tip) of a tooth’s root. Usually, it’s associated with a non-vital (dead) tooth, often as a result of dental decay, trauma, or other factors leading to nerve death in the tooth. How …
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