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High grade B cell lymphoma with MYC and BCL2 rearrangements

High grade B cell lymphoma with MYC and BCL2 rearrangements is a type of cancer that starts in white blood cells called B cells. These cells are part of the immune system and help protect your body from infections and diseases. “High grade” means that this type of cancer is likely to grow and spread …
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Atypical lobular hyperplasia of the breast

Atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH) of the breast is a benign (non-cancerous) condition characterized by an abnormal increase in the number of cells in the lobules of the breast. This condition involves cells that look different from normal cells but are not abnormal enough to be classified as cancer. Atypical lobular hyperplasia is considered a marker …
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Spermatocytic tumour

What is a spermatocytic tumour? Spermatocytic tumour is a rare type of testicular cancer that is typically seen in men over 50 years of age. Unlike other types of testicular cancers, spermatocytic tumour also never metastasizes (spreads) to other parts of the body and most patients are cured with surgery alone. What type of tumour …
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Intramuscular myxoma

What is an intramuscular myxoma? An intramuscular myxoma is a non-cancerous tumour made up of spindle cells surrounded by myxoid tissue and located within a muscle. Is an intramuscular myxoma benign or malignant? An intramuscular myxoma is a benign (non-cancerous) type of tumour. Can an intramuscular myxoma turn into cancer over time? No. Intramuscular myxoma …
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Hibernoma

What is a hibernoma? A hibernoma is a non-cancerous tumour made up of brown fat. Brown fat is a type of fat that is normally found in newborns and young children but it disappears over time and most adults have very little brown fat. Is hibernoma a type of cancer? No. A hibernoma is a …
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Lymphoepithelial carcinoma

What is lymphoepithelial carcinoma? Lymphoepithelial carcinoma is a type of cancer made up of large tumour cells surrounded by non-cancerous immune cells. This type of cancer is more common in young adults of Asian descent. Where does lymphoepithelial carcinoma get its name? This type of cancer is called lymphoepithelial carcinoma because when examined under the …
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Squamous epithelium

What is squamous epithelium? Squamous epithelium is a thin layer of tissue made up of flat, squamous cells. The squamous epithelium forms a barrier on the surface of an organ that protects the tissue below from injury and infection. Where is squamous epithelium normally found in the body? Squamous epithelium can be found in various …
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CD45

CD45, also known as leukocyte common antigen (LCA), is a protein that is expressed on the surface of all hematopoietic cells and their progenitors, except erythrocytes (red blood cells) and platelets. Hematopoietic cells include cells of the immune system, such as B cells, T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, monocytes, and granulocytes. CD45 is a …
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AE1/AE3

AE1/AE3 are a pair of antibodies that recognize multiple cytokeratins, intermediate filament proteins found in epithelial cells. Cytokeratins are normally located in the cytoplasm (body) of the epithelial cell. Pathologists perform a test called immunohistochemistry to stain tissues for AE1/AE3 and the pattern and intensity of staining can help identify the presence of epithelial cells …
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Lichenoid mucositis

What is lichenoid mucositis? Lichenoid mucositis is a pattern of inflammation characterized by large numbers of immune cells and tissue damage on the inside of the mouth. This pattern of inflammation can be seen in a variety of immune-mediated conditions, drug reactions, and chemical exposures. What are the symptoms of lichenoid mucositis? Lichenoid mucositis is …
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