Ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common type of pancreatic cancer. Ductal adenocarcinoma starts in the pancreas from specialized cells on the inside small channels called ducts. Ductal adenocarcinoma can start anywhere along the length of the pancreas but it commonly involves the part of the pancreas that is closest to the small bowel (also called the ‘head’). Unfortunately, ductal adenocarcinoma can be challenging to diagnose early because it produces vague symptoms. In addition, it is a highly aggressive cancer that can spread quickly to surrounding organs and the liver.
The pancreas is a long, thin organ that sits in the abdomen just below the stomach. The pancreas makes enzymes that help the body break down food in the stomach. The pancreas also makes hormones that allow the body to use sugar (insulin being the most important).
The enzymes produced in the pancreas are made in small structures called glands before being transported out of the pancreas in channels called ducts. The ducts are lined by specialized cells called epithelial cells that form a barrier called the epithelium.
Ductal adenocarcinoma often starts from a pre-cancerous disease called pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN). When examined under the microscope, the abnormal cells in PanIN look similar to the cancer cells in ductal adenocarcinoma. The most important difference is that the abnormal cells in PanIN are only seen inside the duct. There are no abnormal cells in the tissue surrounding the duct. Once the abnormal cells break out of the duct and enter the surrounding tissue, the diagnosis becomes ductal adenocarcinoma. The movement of abnormal cells into the surrounding tissue is called invasion.
The first diagnosis of ductal adenocarcinoma is usually made after a procedure is performed to remove a small sample of tissue. Depending on the amount of tissue removed, the procedure may be called a fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy or a core needle biopsy. Surgery is then performed to remove the entire tumour. Often the tumour is removed with part of the pancreas and small bowel, and stomach in a procedure called a “Whipple”.
Grade is a word pathologists use to describe the difference between the cancer cells and the normal, healthy epithelial cells in the pancreas. Because the normal epithelial cells in the pancreas connect together to form glands, adenocarcinoma is usually divided into three grades based on how much of the tumour is made of glands:
Poorly differentiated tumours are associated with a worse prognosis compared to well differentiated tumours.
This is the size of the tumour measured in centimetres. Your report may only describe the greatest dimension. For example, if the tumour measures 5.0 cm by 3.2 cm by 1.1 cm, the report may describe the tumour size as 5.0 cm in the greatest dimension. The tumour size is important because it is used to determine the tumour stage (see Pathologic stage below). Larger tumours are associated with a worse overall prognosis.
The pancreas sits very close to other organs and tissues such as the liver, small bowel, stomach, and blood vessels. Cancer cells that travel outside the pancreas and enter any of these organs are described as tumour extension. All organs or tissues that show evidence of tumour extension will be listed in your report. Tumour extension is used to determine the tumour stage (see Pathologic stage below). Tumours that grow into surrounding organs or tissues are associated with a worse prognosis.
Nerves are like long wires made up of groups of cells called neurons. Nerves send information (such as temperature, pressure, and pain) between your brain and your body. Perineural invasion means that cancer cells were seen attached to a nerve.
Cancer cells that have attached to a nerve can use the nerve to travel into tissue outside of the original tumour. This increases the risk that the tumour will come back in the same area of the body (recurrence) after treatment.
Blood moves around the body through long thin tubes called blood vessels. Another type of fluid called lymph which contains waste and immune cells moves around the body through lymphatic channels.
Cancer cells can use blood vessels and lymphatics to travel away from the tumour to other parts of the body. The movement of cancer cells from the tumour to another part of the body is called metastasis. Before cancer cells can metastasize, they need to enter a blood vessel or lymphatic. This is called lymphovascular invasion. Lymphovascular invasion increases the risk that cancer cells will be found in a lymph node or a distant part of the body such as the lungs.
A margin is any tissue that was cut by the surgeon in order to remove the tumour from your body. The number of margins described in your report will depend on the type of surgery that was performed. Most reports describe margins in the pancreas and in any surrounding organs that were removed at the same time as the tumour.
The two most important margins in the pancreas are:
Other margins that may be described in your report include:
All of these margins will be very closely examined under the microscope by your pathologist to determine the margin status. A margin is considered negative when there are no cancer cells at the edge of the cut tissue. A margin is considered positive when there are cancer cells within 1 millimetre of the edge of the cut tissue. Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) at the margin may also be reported as positive. Cancer cells at the cut edge of the tissue (a positive margin) are associated with a higher risk that the tumour will re-grow in the same site after treatment.
If you received treatment (either chemotherapy or radiation therapy) for your cancer prior to the tumour being removed, your pathologist will examine all of the tissue submitted to see how much of the tumour is still alive (viable).
There are several different systems used to describe treatment effects. In the most common system, the treatment effect is described on a scale of 0 to 3 with 0 being no residual viable tumour (all the cancer cells are dead) and 3 being no response to therapy (all or most of the cancer cells are alive). Lymph nodes with cancer cells will also be examined for treatment effect (see Lymph nodes below).
Lymph nodes are small immune organs located throughout the body. Cancer cells can travel from the tumour to a lymph node through lymphatic channels located in and around the tumour (see Lymphovascular invasion above). The movement of cancer cells from the tumour to a lymph node is called metastasis.
Your pathologist will carefully examine each lymph node for cancer cells. Lymph nodes that contain cancer cells are often called positive while those that do not contain any cancer cells are called negative. Most reports include the total number of lymph nodes examined and the number, if any, that contain cancer cells.
Finding cancer cells in a lymph node is associated with an increased risk that the cancer will come back at a distant body site such as the lungs in the future. This information is also used to determine the nodal stage (see Pathologic stage below).
The pathologic stage for ductal adenocarcinoma is based on the TNM staging system, an internationally recognized system originally created by the American Joint Committee on Cancer.
This system uses information about the primary tumour (T), lymph nodes (N), and distant metastatic disease (M) to determine the complete pathologic stage (pTNM). Your pathologist will examine the tissue submitted and give each part a number. In general, a higher number means more advanced disease and a worse prognosis.
Ductal adenocarcinoma is given a tumour stage between 1 and 4 based on the size of the tumour and the invasion of nearby organs.
Ductal adenocarcinoma is given a nodal stage between 0 and 2 based on the presence or absence of cancer cells in a lymph node and the number of lymph nodes with cancer cells.
Ductal adenocarcinoma is given a metastatic stage of 0 or 1 based on the presence of cancer cells at a distant site in the body (for example the lungs). The metastatic stage can only be determined if tissue from a distant site is sent for pathological examination. Because this tissue is rarely present, the metastatic stage cannot be determined and is listed as MX.