Sessile serrated polyp of the colon and rectum

by David Driman, MBChB FRCPC
May 17, 2023

What is a sessile serrated polyp?

A sessile serrated polyp (SSP) is a non-cancerous growth in the colon. SSP is considered a precancerous condition because it can change into a type of colon cancer called adenocarcinoma over time. For this reason, all SSPs should be removed completely.

Where are sessile serrated polyps normally found?

SSPs are most often found on the right side of the colon, including parts of the colon that are designated as the cecum, ascending, and transverse colon, but they may occur in any location including the rectum.

Does sessile serrated polyp mean cancer?

No, SSP does not mean cancer. However, all SSPs are considered precancerous growths because they can turn into a type of colon cancer called adenocarcinoma over time.

How is the diagnosis of sessile serrated polyp made?

The diagnosis of SSP is usually made after the adenoma is removed during a medical procedure called a colonoscopy. The adenoma may be removed in one piece or in multiple pieces. The tissue sample is then sent to a pathologist for examination.

Unfortunately, it is possible for gastroenterologists and surgeons to miss SSPs when doing a colonoscopy as they can be very difficult to see. They can be flat and indistinct and may blend in with the surrounding lining of the colon.

sessile serrated polyp
Sessile serrated polyp (SSP)
What is a sessile serrated polyp with dysplasia and why is dysplasia important?

Colon cancer can start in an SSP. When cancer develops in an SSP, it usually starts in an area of abnormal growth called dysplasia. For this reason, all SSPs are examined carefully for any signs of dysplasia. Some pathologists divide dysplasia in an SSP into low and high grades, however, this is not currently recommended.

All SSPs require complete removal at colonoscopy but the presence of dysplasia may require a quicker repeat colonoscopy if the removal wasn’t complete on the first visit.

What is a margin?

A margin in an adenoma is the part of the colon or rectum that the gastroenterologist or surgeon cuts to remove the abnormal tissue. Pathologists do not usually state in their report whether the SSP has been completely removed or not, as this is thought to be best judged by the physician doing the colonoscopy.

SSPs are often removed and sent to pathology as multiple pieces (fragments) of tissue. In some of these cases, it will not be possible for your pathologist to determine which piece is the real margin and the changes seen at the margin will not be described in your report.

If there is cancer within the SSP, the pathology report must indicate the distance of the cancer from the margin (the point at which the polyp was attached to the colon).

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