by Jason Wasserman MD PhD FRCPC
May 10, 2022
What is the uterus?
The uterus is a pear-shaped hollow organ found in the female pelvis between the rectum (the end of the large bowel) and the urinary bladder. The upper part of the uterus (fundus) is attached to the fallopian tubes while the lower part is connected to the vagina through the uterine cervix.
The walls of the uterus are made up of three layers:
- Endometrium – The endometrium is the tissue on the inner surface of the uterus. The endometrium is made up of endometrial glands lined by one layer of cells that form a barrier called the epithelium. The epithelium is surrounded by supporting tissue called the endometrial stroma.
- Myometrium – The myometrium is the middle layer and is made up of smooth muscle which allows the uterus to change size and contract.
- Perimetrium – The perimetrium is a thin layer of tissue that surrounds the outside of the uterus.