breast

Paget’s disease of the breast

Paget’s disease is a non-invasive type of breast cancer that involves the nipple and surrounding skin. It is considered non-invasive because the tumour cells are limited to a layer of the skin called the epidermis. Most tumours are believed to start in channels called ducts that run from the nipple to glands deep in the breast. …
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Sclerosing adenosis of the breast

Sclerosing adenosis is a non-cancerous growth made up of small glands in the breast. The glands are surrounded by a type of connective tissue that resembles a scar. When large enough, this type of growth can be seen in imaging studies such as mammography, and a biopsy may be performed to rule out cancer. What …
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Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH)

Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) is a non-cancerous growth in the breast. It is made up of specialized cells called myofibroblasts. The growth is called “pseudoangiomatous” (which means “like blood vessels”) because the myofibroblasts form small slit-like spaces that look similar to blood vessels when examined under the microscope. What causes PASH? PASH appears to be …
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Microcalcification

What is a microcalcification? A microcalcification is a small deposit of the mineral calcium inside tissue. Microcalcifications can be found anywhere in the body but they are most commonly found in the breast where they are associated with both non-cancerous and cancerous conditions. Imaging studies such as mammography can see microcalcifications in the breast and …
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Breast

Atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) Atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH) Benign phyllodes tumour Borderline phyllodes tumour Columnar cell change (CCC) Columnar cell hyperplasia (CCH) Complex sclerosing lesion Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) Fibroadenoma Fibrocystic change Flat epithelial atypia (FEA) Intraductal papilloma Invasive apocrine carcinoma Invasive ductal carcinoma Invasive ductal carcinoma with apocrine features Invasive lobular carcinoma Invasive …
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Columnar cell hyperplasia of the breast

Columnar cell hyperplasia (CCH) is a non-cancerous condition in the breast where the normal cells are replaced by tall, thin cells. This change can only be seen when tissue from the breast is examined under the microscope by a pathologist. CCC is usually seen with another non-cancerous change called flat epithelial atypia.  How do pathologists make …
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Columnar cell change of the breast

Columnar cell change (CCC) is a common non-cancerous condition in the breast. In this condition, normal cells are replaced by tall, thin columnar-shaped cells. A pathologist can only see this change when tissue from the breast is examined under the microscope. Columnar cell change often develops alongside another non-cancerous change in the breast called flat …
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Breast cancer

What is breast cancer? Breast cancer is a general term used to describe a group of malignant (cancerous) tumours that develop from cells normally found in the breast. A malignant tumour is made up of abnormal cells that have the ability to invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body. The most …
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Fibrocystic change of the breast

Fibrocystic change (FCC) is a term used to describe a group of non-cancerous changes that often develop together in the breast. These changes include cysts, fibrosis, apocrine metaplasia, and adenosis. It is a common finding seen in up to 60% of reproductive-aged women. Another name for FCC is fibrocystic disease. What causes fibrocystic change? FCC …
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Flat epithelial atypia (FEA)

Flat epithelial atypia (FEA) is a non-cancerous condition that develops in the breast. This change can only be seen after tissue from the breast is examined under the microscope by a pathologist. FEA is a common condition and it is often seen in breast tissue removed for another reason. About this article This article was …
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