patients

High grade B cell lymphoma NOS

High grade B cell lymphoma NOS (HGBL NOS) is a type of cancer that starts in the white blood cells called B cells. These cells are part of the immune system and help protect your body from infections and diseases. “High grade” means that this type of cancer is likely to grow and spread quickly …
Read More »

Calcitonin

Calcitonin is a hormone that helps regulate calcium levels in the blood by lowering them when they become too high. It achieves this by slowing down the activity of osteoclasts, the cells responsible for bone resorption (the process of breaking down bone tissue and releasing minerals such as calcium into the bloodstream). Calcitonin is primarily …
Read More »

Keratosis without dysplasia

Keratosis without dysplasia in the larynx refers to a condition where the tissue that covers the inside surface of the larynx is abnormally thick without showing signs of dysplasia, which means there are no precancerous changes in the cells. This change is most commonly seen in the vocal cords although other parts of the larynx …
Read More »

Malignant transformation

In pathology, the term malignant transformation describes the development of a malignant (cancerous) tumour from a benign (noncancerous) tumour or a precancerous disease. Malignant transformation is important because the cells in the malignant tumour can grow into nearby tissues and metastasize (spread) to distant organs such as lymph nodes and the lungs. Common conditions that …
Read More »

Cystic degeneration

Cystic degeneration refers to a process where tissue undergoes changes that result in the formation of fluid-filled structures called cysts. This change develops when the tissue starts to break down or degenerate for various reasons. Cystic degeneration can be caused by several factors, depending on the tissue or organ involved: Aging: As tissues age, they …
Read More »

Ki-67 labeling index

The Ki-67 labeling index (LI) is a test used in pathology to measure how quickly cells in a tissue sample are dividing or growing. It helps in understanding how active, or aggressive, certain cells are, especially in tumours. What is Ki-67? Ki-67 is a protein found in the nucleus of cells, which is the control …
Read More »

Low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma

Low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (also known as Evan’s tumour) is a rare type of soft tissue cancer. As its name suggests, low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma is typically considered a low grade sarcoma, meaning it tends to grow and spread more slowly compared to high grade tumours. However, it has a potential for late recurrence and …
Read More »

Alveolar soft part sarcoma

Alveolar soft part sarcoma is a rare type of cancer that typically arises in the soft tissues of the body. These tissues include muscles, fat, and connective tissues. Despite its name, alveolar soft part sarcoma does not start in the alveolar structures of the lung as one might think from the word “alveolar”; rather, it …
Read More »

Invasive adenocarcinoma of the rectum (rectal adenocarcinoma)

Invasive adenocarcinoma of the rectum (also known as rectal adenocarcinoma) is the most common type of rectal cancer. It is made up of cells that normally cover the inside surface of the rectum. This type of cancer often starts in a polyp such as a tubular adenoma, tubulovillous adenoma, or villous adenoma. This article will help …
Read More »

Minimal residual disease

Minimal residual disease (MRD) is a term used to describe the small number of cancer cells that remain in the body after cancer treatment. These cells have the potential to cause relapse in patients. MRD testing can help doctors determine how well the treatment worked, the risk of developing recurrent disease (relapse), and if further …
Read More »

1 2 3 18
A+ A A-