What is BRAF? BRAF is a gene that provides instructions for making the BRAF protein, a kinase enzyme that is part of the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. This pathway plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth and division. What is a gene? Each cell in your body contains a set of instructions that …
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Columnar mucosa

What is columnar mucosa? In pathology, columnar mucosa refers to a tissue that is covered by tall, column-shaped cells with nuclei (the part of the cell that holds the genetic material) located toward the bottom of the cell. These cells are usually taller than they are wide and they contain a substance called mucin. Where …
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Positive for malignancy

Positive for malignancy means that cancer cells were seen in the tissue sample examined under the microscope. It is commonly used to report the results of a small tissue sample such as a core needle biopsy, fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB), or Pap smear. In pathology, the term “positive” means that something was seen or …
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Plasma cells

Plasma cells are a type of white blood cell (WBC) and part of the body’s immune system. They are part of a group of immune cells called lymphocytes. Plasma cells produce proteins called immunoglobulins (also known as antibodies) that protect our body by sticking to bacteria and viruses. Antibodies can also stick to abnormal cells …
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