pathology report

Diverticular disease

Diverticular disease is a medical condition associated with the formation of small, bulging pouches in the digestive tract. They are most frequently found in the large intestine (colon). Diverticular disease encompasses a spectrum of conditions, from diverticula without inflammation (diverticulosis) to diverticula with acute inflammation and possibly infection of these pouches (diverticulitis). What parts of …
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Spread through air spaces (STAS)

In pathology, the term spread through air spaces (STAS) describes a pattern of invasion seen in lung cancer, where cancer cells are observed spreading into the air spaces in the lung tissue outside of the tumour. This pattern of invasion is commonly seen in a type of lung cancer called adenocarcinoma. Why is spread through …
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Lymphatic invasion

Lymphatic invasion refers to the process by which cancer cells break away from the primary tumour and enter the lymphatic system. This system is a network of vessels, lymph nodes, and organs that helps maintain the body’s fluid balance and plays a vital role in the immune response. Once inside the lymphatic system, cancer cells …
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Rhabdoid

In pathology, the term “rhabdoid” is used to describe tumour cells that resemble rhabdomyoblasts, which are immature skeletal muscle cells. However, these cells are not true rhabdomyoblasts and the tumours they arise in are not related to muscle tissue. Rhabdoid cells can be seen in a wide variety of tumour types and the presence of …
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Leukemia

Leukemia is a type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow, the spongy tissue inside bones where blood cells are made. It is characterized by the rapid production of abnormal white blood cells (WBCs), which are not fully developed and do not function properly. These abnormal cells can accumulate in the blood and …
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Papilloma

A papilloma is a common type of benign (non-cancerous) tumour that arises from epithelial cells on the outside or inside surface of an organ or tissue. Most papillomas are described as exophytic because they grow outwardly from the surface of the tissue. In contrast, endophytic or inverted papillomas grow down from the surface into the …
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Amorphous

In pathology, the term “amorphous” describes the appearance of material or tissue that lacks a defined shape or structure when viewed under a microscope. This term is used to characterize substances or cellular debris that do not have a recognizable cellular or tissue architecture, appearing as shapeless, unstructured masses. Amorphous material can be found in …
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Eosinophilic abscess

A collection of eosinophils inside tissue is called an eosinophilic abscess. Eosinophilic abscesses are often seen in areas of infection, especially infections caused by fungi or parasites. If the collection is large enough, it can form a sticky substance called pus. An eosinophilic microabscess is a small group of eosinophils inside tissue. Microabscesses can only …
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Neuroendocrine differentiation

In pathology, the term neuroendocrine differentiation refers to the presence of cells that show characteristics of both nerve cells (neurons) and hormone-producing (endocrine) cells. This means that the cells have features allowing them to produce, store, and release hormones, similar to how certain cells in the body’s nervous and endocrine systems operate. This trait can …
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Macrophages

Macrophages are a type of white blood cell (WBC) that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in a process called phagocytosis, where they engulf and digest pathogens (viruses and bacteria), dead cells, and cellular debris. They start their life as monocytes, a type of blood cell, that migrate from the blood to …
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