pathology report

Neck dissection

A neck dissection is a surgical procedure involving the removal of lymph nodes and surrounding tissue from the neck. It is primarily performed to treat or prevent the spread of cancer, particularly head and neck cancers, by removing potentially affected lymphatic tissue. What is the purpose of a neck dissection? The primary purpose of a …
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Angioinvasive oncocytic adrenal cortical carcinoma

Angioinvasive oncocytic adrenal cortical carcinoma is a type of adrenal gland cancer characterized by the presence of oncocytic cells and evidence of angioinvasion. Oncocytic cells are abnormal cells with an excessive number of mitochondria, giving them a distinctive granular and eosinophilic (pink) appearance under the microscope. Angioinvasion refers to the tumour’s ability to invade blood …
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Adenomatoid nodule of the thyroid gland

An adenomatoid nodule in the thyroid gland refers to a benign (noncancerous) growth, often classified under the broader category of nodular thyroid disease. These nodules are termed “adenomatoid” because they resemble benign tumors known as follicular adenomas; however, they are distinct in that they lack a complete fibrous capsule and often merge with the surrounding …
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Blue nevus

A blue nevus is a type of benign (noncancerous) growth made up of specialized cells called melanocytes. It is characterized by its distinctive blue or bluish-gray color, which is caused by the presence of melanin deep within the dermis, a phenomenon known as the Tyndall effect. What causes a blue nevus? Blue nevus is generally …
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WT-1 (Wilms’ tumour 1)

WT-1 (Wilms’ tumour 1) is a type of protein called a transcription factor. It was originally identified due to its association with Wilms’ tumour, a type of kidney cancer that affects children. It plays a critical role in the development and function of the kidneys and testis, influencing gene expression related to cellular growth and …
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Mycetoma of the sinuses

A mycetoma of the sinus, also known as a fungal ball, is a type of fungal infection that occurs within the paranasal sinuses. It is typically non-invasive but can cause significant symptoms due to the mass effect of the fungal accumulation. What causes a mycetoma? Mycetoma of the sinus is caused by the accumulation of …
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HPV associated dysplasia of the oral cavity

HPV associated dysplasia of the oral cavity is a precancerous condition in which the squamous cells that cover the inside of the oral cavity begin to show abnormal growth due to infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV). If not treated effectively, this condition can progress to a type of cancer called squamous cell carcinoma. What …
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Oral melanotic macule

An oral melanotic macule is a benign (noncancerous), flat, pigmented spot found on the mucous membranes of the oral cavity. It is not a type of cancer nor a precursor to cancer but is simply a localized area of increased pigmentation. Does an oral melanotic macule need to be removed? This lesion is generally harmless …
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Fibromyxoid tumour

A “fibromyxoid tumour” is not a specific diagnosis but a descriptive term that refers to various benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous) tumours characterized by the presence of fibrous and myxoid tissue components. These tumours can arise in both soft tissues and bone throughout the body, and their behaviour depends on whether they are ultimately determined …
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Lymphoblastic lymphoma

Lymphoblastic lymphoma is a rare type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that primarily affects lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell crucial for the immune system. It is similar to acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in terms of the cells it involves and its aggressive nature, but while ALL primarily affects the bone marrow and blood, lymphoblastic lymphoma …
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