SOX10 is a protein that is made by many different kinds of normal healthy cells including melanocytes, nerve cells, and salivary gland cells. Tumours that start from these types of specialized cells also make SOX-10.
Once the SOX-10 protein is made it is held in a part of the cell called the nucleus. The nucleus is an important part of the cell because it holds most of the cells’ genetic material (DNA).
Pathologists use a test called immunohistochemistry to ‘see’ the SOX-10 inside these cells. Pathologists will perform this test when they are trying to decide if the cells that they are looking at under the microscope are one of the cell types that normally make SOX-10. Cells that make SOX-10 will be called SOX10 positive or reactive for SOX10. Cells that do not make SOX10 will be called SOX10 negative or non-reactive for SOX10.