breast cancer

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-invasive type of breast cancer. The tumour starts from specialized epithelial cells in the glands and ducts of the breast. DCIS is called non-invasive because, after careful microscopic examination, cancer cells were found only on the inside of the ducts and glands. If left untreated, patients with DCIS …
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Invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast

Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) is a type of breast cancer and the most common type of breast cancer worldwide. This type of cancer starts from epithelial cells normally found inside the ducts and glands in the breast. Another name for this type of cancer is infiltrating ductal carcinoma. How is this diagnosis made? The diagnosis …
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Progesterone receptor (PR)

Progesterone receptor (PR) is a protein that allows a cell to respond to the actions of the hormone progesterone. After PR protein is made, it stays in a part of the cell called the nucleus. Progesterone hormone that enters the cell can change the behavior of the cell by activating PRs. Not all cells make …
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Estrogen receptor (ER)

The estrogen receptor (ER) is a protein found inside and on the surface of certain cells. It is a nuclear hormone receptor that is activated by the hormone estrogen. There are two main types of estrogen receptors: ERα (alpha) and ERβ (beta). When activated by estrogen, these receptors are involved in the transcription of specific …
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