define

B cells

What are B cells? B cells (also called B lymphocytes) are a type of white blood cell and a part of the immune system. B cells come from hematopoietic stem cells found in the bone marrow. These cells are called stem cells because they give rise to all the cells in the blood and immune …
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T cells

What are T cells? T cells (also called T lymphocytes) are a type of white blood cell and a part of the immune system. T cells come from hematopoietic stem cells found in the bone marrow. These cells are called stem cells because they give rise to all the cells in the blood and immune …
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CD30

What is CD30? CD30 is a protein that is made by activated immune cells such as T cells and B cells. Greater than normal levels of CD30 is also made by some types of cancer that start from T or B cells, such as anaplastic large cell lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma. The tumour cells in …
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CD5

What is CD5? CD5 is a protein that is normally made by specialized immune cells called T cells. Most lymphomas that start from T cells, including peripheral T cell lymphoma, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, and extranodal T cell lymphoma, make CD5. Abnormal B cells can also make CD5, and some lymphomas that start from these …
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CD3

What is CD3? CD3 is a protein that is normally made by two types of specialized immune cells: T cells and NK cells. Most lymphomas that start from T and NK cells, including peripheral T cell lymphoma, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, and NK/T cell lymphoma, also make CD3. Why do pathologists test for CD3? The …
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Apocrine

What does apocrine mean? Pathologists use the term apocrine to describe a large pink cell with a round nucleus and a prominent central nucleolus.  Apocrine cells look pink when examined under the microscope because the cytoplasm (body) of the cell is full of proteins that stick to eosin (a pink dye) in the hematoxylin and …
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Oncocytic

What does oncocytic mean? Pathologists use the term oncocytic to describe cells that look bright pink when stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and examined under a microscope. Oncocytic cells look pink because the cytoplasm (body) of the cell is full of mitochondria that stick to eosin (a pink dye). A tumour made up entirely …
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Breast

What types of cells are normally found in the breast? Adult breast tissue is made up of small structures called glands which are organized into groups called lobules. Under certain conditions, these glands can produce milk, which is transported to the nipple by a series of small channels called ducts. The inside of both glands …
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Basaloid neoplasm

What is a basaloid neoplasm? Basaloid neoplasm is a term used to describe an abnormal growth made up of cells that look dark blue when examined under the microscope. The cells in the growth, or neoplasm, are called basaloid because they look similar to the basal cells normally found at the bottom of a thin layer …
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Spindle cell neoplasm

What is a spindle-cell neoplasm? A spindle-cell neoplasm is a general term used to describe an abnormal growth (a neoplasm) made up of spindle cells (cells that are longer than they are wide). Spindle-cell neoplasm is considered a general term because it includes many different types of benign (non-cancerous) and malignant (cancerous) growths. Most malignant …
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