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What is a virus?

A virus is an incredibly small biological agent capable of infecting animals, plants, bacteria, and fungi. The typical virus is approximately 1/10 the size of a single bacteria and 1/100 to 1/1000 the size of a human cell. Although there are many different types of viruses (see below), most are made up of the same …
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What is SOX10?

SOX10 is a protein that is made by many different kinds of normal healthy cells including melanocytes, nerve cells, and salivary gland cells. Tumours that start from these types of specialized cells also make SOX-10. Once the SOX-10 protein is made it is held in a part of the cell called the nucleus. The nucleus …
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What is lymphocytosis?

Lymphocytosis is a word pathologists use to describe an increased number of specialized immune cells called lymphocytes either in the blood or inside an organ. Organs that commonly show lymphocytosis include the stomach, small bowel, and colon. Lymphocytes normally help the body fight off infections caused by viruses and bacteria. However, increased numbers of lymphocytes …
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What is p40?

p40 is a protein that is made by many different kinds of normal healthy cells including squamous cells, basal cells, and myoepithelial cells. Tumours that start from these types of specialized cells also make p40. Once the p40 protein is made it is held in a part of the cell called the nucleus. The nucleus …
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What does calcification mean?

Calcium is a mineral found throughout the body. Cells need calcium to function normally. Calcification is a word pathologists use when calcium builds up inside of a tissue sample. When examined under a microscope areas of calcification look much darker than the surrounding normal tissue. Calcifications can be seen on routine H&E stained slides. Pathologists …
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What does atrophy mean?

Atrophy is a word pathologists use to describe a loss of tissue or a decrease in the size of an organ. Another word for atrophy is atrophic. Atrophy can happen anywhere in the body. Atrophy is a description of the changes seen when the tissue is examined under the microscope. It is not a diagnosis. …
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What does atrophic mean?

Atrophic is a word pathologists use to describe a process called atrophy. To learn more, read our article about atrophy.

What does AVM mean?

AVM stands for arteriovenous malformation. An arteriovenous malformation is an abnormal group of blood vessels. Most arteriovenous malformations are made up of two different kinds of blood vessels – arteries and veins. Arteries are large blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to the body. Veins are large blood vessels that carry blood back …
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What is an arteriovenous malformation?

An arteriovenous malformation is an abnormal group of blood vessels. Most arteriovenous malformations are made up of two different kinds of blood vessels – arteries and veins. Arteries are large blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to the body. Veins are large blood vessels that carry blood back from the body to the …
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What does immunoreactivity mean?

Immunoreactivity is a word pathologists use to describe the results of a test called immunohistochemistry. This test is performed to see if the cells in a tissue sample make a protein of interest. Cells that make the protein may be described as reactive or positive. Cells that do not produce the protein may be described …
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