meaning

Squamous epithelium

What is squamous epithelium? Squamous epithelium is a thin layer of tissue made up of flat, squamous cells. The squamous epithelium forms a barrier on the surface of an organ that protects the tissue below from injury and infection. Where is squamous epithelium normally found in the body? Squamous epithelium can be found in various …
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Squamous mucosa

Squamous mucosa is a thin layer of tissue that covers the inside surface of the mouth, esophagus, vagina, cervix, and anal canal. It is also found in the respiratory tract, where it lines the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi. Squamous mucosa is designed to protect the tissue below from physical injury and infection. …
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CD45

CD45, also known as leukocyte common antigen (LCA), is a protein that is expressed on the surface of all hematopoietic cells and their progenitors, except erythrocytes (red blood cells) and platelets. Hematopoietic cells include cells of the immune system, such as B cells, T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, monocytes, and granulocytes. CD45 is a …
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Columnar mucosa

In pathology, columnar mucosa refers to a tissue lined by tall, column-shaped cells with nuclei (the part of the cell that holds the genetic material) located toward the bottom of the cell. These cells are usually taller than they are wide and they contain a substance called mucin. Where is columnar mucosa normally found in …
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AE1/AE3

AE1/AE3 are a pair of antibodies that recognize multiple cytokeratins, intermediate filament proteins found in epithelial cells. Cytokeratins are normally located in the cytoplasm (body) of the epithelial cell. Pathologists perform a test called immunohistochemistry to stain tissues for AE1/AE3 and the pattern and intensity of staining can help identify the presence of epithelial cells …
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Degenerative changes

In pathology, the term degenerative changes describes the microscopic appearance of tissue that has undergone physical breakdown so that it no longer resembles normal healthy tissue. These changes can prevent a tissue or organ from functioning normally. On their own, these changes are not cancerous. However, some tumours (including some cancers) can show these changes …
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PD-L1

PD-L1 (Programmed Death-Ligand 1) is a protein found on the surface of normal, healthy cells and some cancer cells. It is called an immune checkpoint protein because it acts to turn down the activity of immune cells called T cells¬†which normally detect abnormal cells such as cancer cells and remove them from the body. Cancer …
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Low grade

What does low grade mean? In pathology, low grade is used to describe cells that look abnormal when examined under the microscope but still share some features with normal, healthy cells. In order to determine if cells are low grade, pathologists often compare the abnormal-looking cells to the cells normally found in that part of …
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High grade

What does high grade mean? In pathology, high grade is used to describe cells that look very abnormal when examined under the microscope. In order to determine if a group of cells are high grade, pathologists typically compare the abnormal-looking cells to the cells normally found in that part of the body. The term high …
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Cytologic atypia

In pathology, the term cytologic atypia describes cells that look abnormal when examined under a microscope. Cells may be described as showing cytologic atypia because of their shape, size, or colour. These changes can affect the cytoplasm (body) of the cell or the nucleus (the part of the cell that holds the genetic material). Does …
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